Articles from 01/2016

28 January 2016

The ex-Russian spy, Alexander Litvinenko poisoned by drinking a cup of tea laced with radioactive…

A public inquiry into the killing of former Russian spy Alexander Litvinenko has concluded that President Putin probably approved his assassination. But who was he and why did his death cause such controversy?

Former spy Alexander Litvinenko was killed in November 2006, leading to a clouding of relations between London and Moscow.

The 43-year-old had been an officer with the Federal Security Service (FSB), the successor to the KGB, but he fled to Britain where he became a fierce critic of the Kremlin. In his final years he also became a British citizen.

After…Read

Freewill and Determinism in Psychology

The determinist approach proposes that all behavior is caused by preceding factors and is thus predictable. The causal laws of determinism form the basis of science.

Free will is the idea that we are able to have some choice in how we act and assumes that we are free to choose our behavior, in other words we are self determined.

For example, people can make a free choice as to whether to commit a crime or not (unless they are a child or they are insane). This does not mean that behavior is random, but…Read

US and Russia fail to agree on Syria peace talks

A Syrian opposition council formed in Riyadh last month said on Wednesday it will not attend peace negotiations if a third party joins the talks, a reference to a Russian bid to include other groups in the process that was due to be launched next week, Reuters reported.

Riad Hijab, who heads the council, accused Russia of impeding negotiations, and also told a news conference in Riyadh that the opposition could not negotiate while Syrians were dying as a result of blockades and bombardment.

Sources told Zaman al-Wasl that Brigadier General Asaad al-Zoubi, Southern Front'…Read

Mideast Talks…

Parties have yet to agree on a list of opposition groups who may attend, as both sides seek more assurances.

Talks meant to be held in Geneva next week between both sides of Syria's civil war - opposition groups and President Bashar al-Assad's government - are far from certain to take place.

Although the UN special envoy for Syria, Staffan de Mistura, briefed the Security Council in a closed meeting on Monday about these muchanticipated talks, there is still no consensus on who should be invited.

"Obviously we hope that the…Read

The Courage to be oneself

How can it be defined? Baruch Spinoza believes that courage is an essential act of everything that participates in being, namely self-affirmation. The endeavour, where everything endeavours to persist in its own being is nothing else but the actual essence of that thing, the striving towards something. This striving is not a contingent aspect of a thing nor is it an element in its being along with other elements; it is the essentia actualis. The striving makes a thing what it is. If the striving stops the thing disappears.

Spinoza calls this striving which is the essence…Read

6 January 2016

The Courage to be oneself—Self Affirmation

How can it be defined?  Spinoza believes that courage is an essential act of everything that participates in being, namely self-affirmation.  The endeavour, where everything endeavours to persist in its own being is nothing else but the actual essence of that thing. The striving towards something.  This striving: is not a contingent aspect of a thing nor is it an element in its being along with other elements; it is the essential actualis  the striving makes a thing what it is. If the striving stops the thing disappears.

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