German Chancellor Angela Merkel faces growing opposition at home to her welcome for refugees, as the number of asylum seekers in Germany this year is forecast to reach at least 800,000.
There are expectations that Russia's air strikes in Syria in support of a government offensive, as well as further gains by so-called Islamic State (IS), will displace more Syrians - on top of the 11 million already uprooted.
How to help Turkey
The EU is offering more aid and resources to Turkey to improve conditions in the refugee camps.
That is a priority before winter, as severe hardship there - and in other countries on Syria's borders - could push more refugees to make the hazardous journey to Europe.
An EU-Turkey joint action plan is being finalised, to ease the refugees' plight, crack down on people-smuggling gangs and help Turkey repatriate migrants to countries deemed to be safe.